One thing that I've always captured my attention when people (sheiks etc) talk about islam is the hereafter and the signs of the Day of Judgment. So I did a little bit of research on the subject.
First sign is the appearance of Imam Mahdi. The word "Mahdi" means the guided one. Hadhrat Ali (R.A.) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, "Even if only a day remains for Qiyamah to come, yet Allah will surely send a man from my family who will fill this world with such justice and fairness, just as it initially was filled with oppression." (Abu Dawood. Imam Mahdi will be the first to be sent down to humans.
His Emergence and Rule
“Hadhrat Umme Salmah (R.A.) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, “After the death of a Ruler there will be some dispute between the people. At that time a citizen of Medina will flee (from Medina) and go to Makkah. While in Makkah, certain people will approach him between Hajrul Aswad and Maqaame Ibraheem, and forcefully pledge their allegiance to him.
Thereafter a huge army will proceed from Syria to attack him but when they will be at Baida, which is between Makkah and Medina; they will be swallowed into the ground.
On seeing this, the Abdaals of Shaam as well as large numbers of people from Iraq will come to him and pledge their allegiance to him. Then a person from the Quraish, whose uncle will be from the Bani Kalb tribe, will send an army to attack him, only to be overpowered, by the will of Allah. This (defeated) army will be that of the Bani Kalb. Unfortunate indeed is he who does not receive a share from the booty of the Kalb. This person (Imam Mahdi) will distribute the spoils of war after the battle. He will lead the people according to the Sunnat and during his reign Islam will spread throughout the world. He will remain till seven years (since his emergence). He will pass away and the Muslims will perform his Janazah salaat." (Abu Dawood) …
While the people will be pledging their allegiance to Imam Mahdi, a voice from the unseen will call out:
"This is the representative of Allah,
The Mahdi, listen to him and obey him"
Imam Mahdi is said to come when the world and people are very confused, and there will be so much death and turmoil, that a person won’t be able to find a place to stay from all the oppressiveness and fear. There will be many battles and fitnaas and the people will be so scared that they only wish they could die. This is when Imam Mahdi will appear and help the people. But before his appearance there will be many tribal fights, and the people going to Hajj will be “looted” and a battle in Mina will take place where tons of people will be killed and murdered. A man; known as the Sufyani, will appear before Imam Mahdi, and will be a tyrant who spreads evil and corrupts the people and earth. He will murder children and women and kill many, many people. When he hears that Imam Mahdi is coming, The Sufyani will try to send his army to capture and kill him, but the earth will swallow up his army before they even reach Imam Mahdi.
Abu Huraira (R.A.) has narrated that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, ''A man will emerge from the depth of Damascus. He will be called Suffyani. Most of those who follow him will be from the tribe of Kalb. He will kill by ripping the stomachs of women and even kill the children. A man from my family will appear in Haram, the news of his advent will reach the Suffyani and he will send forth one of his armies. He (referring to Imam Mahdi) will defeat them. They will then travel with whoever remains until they come to a desert and they will be swallowed. None will be saved except the one who had informed the others about them. '' (Mustadarak).
So first, Imam Mahdi appears in Makah and then goes to Medina. An army (The army of Mansour) will go to Makah to help Imam Mahdi. On their way they win many, many battles and no one can stop them. The Suffyanis (army sent by Sufyan to kill Imam Mahdi) are then swallowed by the earth on their way to Mekah. Then, Imam Mahdi and his Muslim army go to “confront” the Christians. There will be a battle, but before that, the Christians will ask the Muslims to return their prisoners of war, but the muslims will refuse. They start to fight and A third of Imam Mahdi’s army will flee (their repentance will not be accepted), one-third will be martyred, and one-third will gain victory over the Christians. The Muslim army and Imam Mahdi will then conquer Palestine. Imam Mahdi goes back to Syria and re-establishes Muslim rule after the Christians have taken over it. But at this time, many Muslims are weak and the righteous and pious will be very little in number.
Then there will be signs of the appearance of Dajjal. Before he appears, there will be three years of drought. And then Dajjal will appear and claim to be Prophet Jesus (Peace be Upon him), and will spread much hatred and corruption. The yahudis; his followers will be very fancily dressed in silk and carry expensive swords. He will go around the world telling people he is the prophet. Then the true Prophet Jesus will appear in Imam Mahdi’s lifetime and Dajjal will lead his army in a war against Prophet Jesus and his followers. Prophet Jesus and Imam Mahdi will defeat Dajjal at the Gate of Hudd, near an Israeli airport in ‘Ifiq’. The muslims are therefore victorious, and at the death of Dajjal, there is going to be total peace and harmony on earth. The earth will be rich in crops and the people will follow Islam. Prophet Jesus (A.S.) will then receive a revelation that tells him that Yajooj and Majooj (two tribes existing even now but are imprisoned) will be released, and create much trouble on the earth, but the believers will be taken to Mt. Toor. Yajooj and Majooj will reach Jerusalem and say that they have conquered the world. It is said that they will shoot arrow into the sky to conquer the heavens, but their arrows will come back blood-stained. At Mt. Toor, where the believers are, there will be a lot of hardships and there will not be enough provisions and food. Prophet Jesus and the rest of the Muslims will pray for the removal of the calamite. Their prayers are answered and Yajooj and Majooj will develop an infection and die. The muslims again pray that birds come down and dispose of Yajooj and Majooj in the ocean. After this, it will rain for forty days and the earth will be fresh and rich in crops, and there will be a peace on earth, while Prophet Jesus (A.S.) is alive for 19 years after marriage. Prophet Jesus will then pass away, and be buried beside Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). There will be many leaders after Prophet Jesus (A.S.) and the earth will start to decay and again infidelity will set in.
The final signs of the Day of Judgment:
The ground will start to cave in, in three places, then there will be 40 days where the skies will be covered in smoke and fog, where the non-believers become unconscious and the Muslims will become sick. Then the skies will clear up, but a night, three nights long will follow the fog and cause a lot of restlessness of people. After the night of three nights, the sun will miraculously rise from the west. After this incident, the repentance of people will never be accepted. A day later, the beast of the earth will appear, breaking the ground in half. This beast will talk to people and mark faces of the believers in glitter and the non-believers faces become dark. Thereafter, will be a breeze coming from the south that will make sores in the armpits of the believers and casue them to die. After this, the destruction of Kabah and Hajj will stop, and the Quran will be lifted from the people’s hearts. The final sign of the Day of Judgment is a fire in Yemen that will follow people to Syria, where it will stop. A couple years later, a trumpet will be blown marking the beginning of The Day of Judgment. These are all the Major signs of The Day of Judgment.
The Minor Signs:
· The disappearance of knowledge and the appearance of ignorance (Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Majah, & Ahmad)
· Books/writing will be widespread and (religious) knowledge will be low (Ahmad)
· Adultery and fornication will be prevalent (The Prophet, peace be upon him, said that this has never happened without new diseases befalling the people, which their ancestors had not known.) (Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Majah, & Al-Haythami)
· When fornication becomes widespread among your leaders (The Prophet, peace be upon him, said that this will happen when the people stop forbidding evil) (Ibn Majah)
· Adultery and fornication will be performed in the open
· The consumption of intoxicants will be widespread (Bukhari & Muslim)
· Women will outnumber men......eventually 50:1 (Bukhari, Muslim, & Ahmad)
· Killing, killing, killing (Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Majah, & Ahmad)
· The nations of the earth will gather against the Muslims like hungry people going to sit down to a table full of food. This will occur when the Muslims are large in number, but "like the foam of the sea".
· People will beat others with whips like the tails of oxen (Muslim) ?The Slave Trade
· The children will be filled with rage (at-Tabarani, al-Hakim)
· Children will be foul (at-Tabarani, al-Hakim)
· Women will conspire (at-Tabarani, al-Hakim)
· Rain will be acidic or burning (at-Tabarani, al-Hakim)
· Children of fornication will become widespread or prevalent (at-Tabarani, al-Hakim)
· When a trust becomes a means of making a profit (at-Tirmidhi, Al-Haythami)
· Gains will be shared out only among the rich, with no benefit to the poor (at-Tirmidhi)
· Paying zakat becomes a burden and miserliness becomes widespread; charity is given reluctantly (at-Tirmidhi & Al-Haythami)
· Miserliness will be thrown into the hearts of people (Bukhari)
· Episodes of sudden death will become widespread (Ahmad)
· There will be people who will be brethren in public but enemies in secret (He was asked how that would come about and replied, "Because they will have ulterior motives in their mutual dealings and at the same time will fear one another.") (at-Tirmidhi)
· When a man obeys his wife and disobeys his mother; and treats his friend kindly while shunning his father (at-Tirmidhi)
· When voices are raised in the mosques (at-Tirmidhi)
· People will walk in the marketplace with their thighs exposed
· Great distances will be traversed in short spans of time
· The people of Iraq will recieve no food and no money due to oppression by the Romans (Europeans) (Muslim)
· People will hop between the clouds and the earth
· A tribulation will enter everyone’s home (Ahmad)
· The leader of a people will be the worst of them (at-Tirmidhi)
· Leaders of people will be oppressors (Al-Haythami)
· People will treat a man with respect out of fear for some evil he might do (at-Tirmidhi)
· Men will begin to wear silk (at-Tirmidhi)
· Female singers and musical instruments will become popular (at-Tirmidhi)
· When singers become common (Al-Haythami)
· People will dance late into the night
· When the last ones of the Ummah begin to curse the first ones (at-Tirmidhi)
· People will claim to follow the Qur'an but will reject hadith & sunnah (Abu Dawood)
· People will believe in the stars (Al-Haythami)
· People will reject al-Qadr (the Divine Decree of Destiny) (Al-Haythami)
· Time will pass rapidly (Bukhari, Muslim, & Ahmad)
· Good deeds will decrease (Bukhari)
· Smog will appear over cities because of the evil that they are doing
· People will be carrying on with their trade, but their will only be a few trustworthy persons
· Wealth will increase so much so that if a man were given 10,000, he would not be content with it (Ahmad & Bukhari)
· A man will pass by a grave and wish that he was in their place (Bukhari)
· Earthquakes will increase (Bukhari & Muslim)
· There will be attempts to make the deserts green
· The appearance of false messengers (30 dajjals) (Bukhari)
· Women will be naked in spite of being dressed, these women will be led astray & will lead others astray (Muslim)
· The conquest of Constantinople by the Muslims (Ahmad)
· The conquest of India by the Muslims, just prior to the return of Jesus, son of Mary (peace be upon both of them)(Ahmad, an-Nisa'i, at-Tabarani, al-Hakim)
· When people begin to compete with others in the construction of taller buildings (Bukhari)
· There will be a special greeting for the people of distinction (Ahmad)
· The Euphrates will disclose a treasure (The Prophet, peace be upon him, said that whoever is present should not take anything from it) (Bukhari & Muslim)
· Two large groups, adhering to the same religious teaching will fight each other with large numbers of casualties (Bukhari & Muslim)
· Wild animals will be able to talk to humans (Ahmad)
· A man will leave his home and his thigh or hip will tell him what is happening back at his home (Ahmad)
· Years of deceit in which the truthful person will not be believed and the liar will be believed (Ahmad)
· Bearing false witness will become widespread (Al-Haythami & Ahmad)
· When men lie with men and women lie with women (Al-Haythami)
· Trade will become so widespread that a woman will be forced to help her husband in business (Ahmad)
· A woman will enter the workforce out of love for this world (Ahmad)
· Arrogance will increase in the earth (at-Tabarani, al-Hakim)
· Family ties will be cut (Ahmad)
· There will be many women of child-bearing age who will no longer give birth.
· There will be an abundance of food, much of which has no blessing in it.
· People will refuse when offerred food.
· Men will begin to look like women and women will begin to look like